Expansion of UN Peacekeeping : @PKO Now!

Norimasa Tochibayashi
Program Advisor
July 6, 2012

Start as Cease Fire Observation

The first peacekeeping operation in the history of UN was the Truce Supervision Organization ( UNTSO ) which observes the ceasefire agreement after the 1948 Arab-Israeli War. Its activities are ongoing even as of today12. In the early times of the UN peacekeeping history, so called a "First Generation", it progressed activities for observing ceasefire with the consent of the parties and impartiality.

Peacebuilding by Civilian Components

After the Cold War, a new concept known as "peacebuilding",3proposed by the former Secretary-General Boutros Boutros-Ghali, disseminated the needs for the prevention of the recurrence of conflicts and consolidation of peace. It is considered that disarmament, return of refugees/ IDP s, demining, electoral assistance and protection of human rights are included in peacebuilding. In response to these changes of circumstances, UN deployed civilian components within peacekeeping and combined the first-generation "traditional peacekeeping" and "peacebuilding". This new form of peacekeeping is called a "Second Generation."

Unsuccessful Peace Enforcement

In early 1990s, UN actively sought peace in conflict areas where ceasefire had not been agreed. It is known as "peace enforcement" classified as a "Third Generation"4. However, peace enforcement was not successful. In Somalia, for example, despite the fact that UN Operation in Somalia II ( UNOSOM II ), which succeeded UNOSOM I with an enlarged mandate, was established to intervene the civil war in Somalia in 1993, they failed to reconcile parties. In addition, hostilities toward UNOSOM II were increased among Somali people. As a result, UNOSOM II was forced to withdraw from Somalia.5

Integration for "One UN "

In late 1990s, peacekeeping missions played a role as a transitional administration in post-conflict states, such as UN Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo ( UNMIK ) and UN Transitional Administration in East Timor ( UNTAET ) in 19996. This "occupation" by UN was a significant change in UN peacekeeping history.

Years later, in accordance with an increased gravity of humanitarian aid and rehabilitation after conflict, UN peacekeeping sought cooperation with UN agencies that have expertise in the area mentioned above, and introduced a new framework called "integrated mission." In this framework, peacekeeping mission and UN Country Team is expected to be operated as "One UN " for effective operations from ceasefire observation, peacebuilding, to humanitarian aid7. This integrated peacekeeping is classified as a "Fourth Generation".

1Chesterman, Simon, T. Franck and D. Malone.Law and Practice of the United Nations: Documents and Commentary.2nd ed., Oxford University Press, 2008, p. 268.

2List of Peacekeeping Operations 1948-2011.United Nations, http://www.un.org/en/peacekeeping/documents/operationslist.pdf accessed 27 February 2012.

3U.N. Secreatary-General.An Agenda for Peace: Preventive Diplomacy, Peacemaking and peace-keeping: Rep. of the Secretary-General,U.N. Doc. A/47/277-S/24111 (1992).

4Aiba, Kazuhiko. "Fomer-Yugoslav War from the view of humanitarian intervention: Analysis on legitimacy and effectiveness of UNPROFOR (Jindotekikainyuno Sitenkara Mita kyu-Yugosurabia Funso: Bosunia UNPROFOR ni kansuru "seitousei" "jikkousei" no kantenkarano kensho)."Kokusai Kokyoseisaku Kenkyu2, no. 1 (1998), p. 118-119.

5Ramsbotham, Oliver, and Tom Woodhouse.Encyclopedia of International Peacekeeping Operations.Santa Barbara: ABC-CLIO, 1999, 220-228.

6Chesterman, Simon. "Transitional Administration, State-Building and the United Nations."Making States Work: State failure and the crisis of governance.Tokyo: United Nations University Press, 2005. 339-358.

7Department of Peacekeeping Operations and Department of Field Support.A New Partnership Agenda: Charting a new horizon for UN peacekeeping.New York: United Nations, 2009, http://www.un.org/en/peacekeeping/documents/newhorizon.pdf accessed 27 February 2012.